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(1) Ozone and Anion

What is Ozone?

Ozone is a molecule composed of three atoms of oxygen. Two atoms of oxygen form the basic oxygen molecule--the oxygen we breathe that is essential to life. The third oxygen atom can detach from the ozone molecule, and re-attach to molecules of other substances, thereby altering their chemical composition. It is this ability to react with other substances that forms the basis of destroying bacteria, viruses and odors in nature. In nature ozone is produced several difference way, the most familiar way is about the ozone layer, where ozone is created by the sun's ultra-violet rays. On the other way, Ozone is also produced at thunderstorms and waterfalls, The special "fresh, clean, spring rain" smell that we notice after a storm is most often results from natures creation of ozone. 

How does ozone work?  

Ozone, sometimes called "activated oxygen", because ozone (o3) is very unstable and likes to turn back to pure oxygen (O2), it can oxidize with all kinds of materials. The extra atom of oxygen destroys odor, viruses, moulds and bacteria in addition to oxidizing pollutants. Ozone is possibly the greatest purification element we have available to deal with man-made pollutants.

How do negative ions work?

Negative ions have been linked directly and indirectly to better health. Negative ions have been shown to increase oxygenation of the lungs and lower complaints of general aches, pains, lethargy and depression. Additionally, investigators at the EPA have shown how particles charged by combining with negative ions tend to attach to grounded surfaces such as ceilings, walls, and floors. This electro-static attraction effectively removes otherwise inhalable airborne toxins (nitrates, sulfates, auto emissions and more) from your breathable air.

What's the difference between negative ions and ozone?

A lot! Negative ions are molecules of oxygen (O2) in the air with an extra electron. Ozone is O3, a molecule of oxygen consisting of three oxygen atoms instead of the normal two. Negative ions primarily reduce particulates in the air such as dust and pollen, but they aren't as effective as ozone for eliminating odors. Ozone does not reduce the particulates in the air, but it is more effective at eliminating odors, even very strong odors. Too much ozone is bad for you. Having said that, there are machines available that intentionally generate ozone (we can supply them if you need one), but if the level of ozone is properly adjusted, the ozone and the odors in the air cancel each other out and little if any ozone remains.

Why not chlorine?

Pool and spa water treatment with chlorine and other halogen disinfectants (bromine) require maintaining a residual concentration of at least 1 to 3 PPM (Part Per Million) in water. The effectiveness of the use of these chemicals is controlled by many variables: pH, dissolved solids, temperature and halogen concentrations. Under EPA urging, most municipalities now restrict the from dispensing and storage of chlorine. When chlorine is introduced into water, a large percentage of it converts to chloramines. Chloramines are not effective as a biocide. Too often, chloramines in water convert to chloroform by heat and air agitation. Chloroform is a toxic carcinogen. Other toxic by-products of water chlorination are trihalomethanes, developed from partially oxidized organics. THM's have been identified as extremely hazardous by EPA in the Safe Water Act.

Some Basic Data of Negative Ion

Test Places Forest, Waterfall Mountain, Seashore Suburb, Rural Area House and Room
N-Density (ion/cm3) 100,000-500,000 50,000-100,000 5,000-50,000 0-50
Effect Immune Naturally Minimize the Infection Improve Body Anti-Germs Insomnia, AC Diseases
 
 
 
(2) Ultraviolet

What is Ultraviolet? 

Ultraviolet rays have shorter wavelengths than visible light. A wavelength, the distance between the crests of two waves, is often measured in units called nanometers. A nanometer (nm) is a billionth of a meter, or about 1/25,000,000 inch. Wavelengths of visible light range from about 400 to 700 nm. Ultraviolet wavelengths range from about 1 to 400 nm and are beyond the range of visible light.

Ultraviolet rays with wavelengths shorter than 300 nm are extremely effective in killing bacteria and viruses. The most effective sterilizing range for UV is within the C bandwidth (UVC). This range is called the germicidal bandwidth. UVC has been used in hospitals for decades to sterilize surgical instruments, water, and the air in operating rooms. Many food and drug companies use germicidal

lamps to disinfect various types of products and their containers.
The cleaning mechanism of UV is a photochemical process. The contaminants that pollute our homes are almost entirely based upon organic or carbon-based compounds. These compounds breakdown when exposed to high intensity UV at 240 to 290 nm. Short-wave ultraviolet light can destroy DNA in living microorganisms and breakdown organic material found in indoor air. UVC's effectiveness is directly related to intensity and exposure time. 

UV rays must strike the contaminants directly in order to penetrate the microorganism and break down its molecular bonds. This bond breakage translates into cellular or genetic damage with the germs rendered harmless by robbing them of the ability to reproduce.
(3) Photocatalyst

What is Photocatalyst?

Photocatalyst means a function that substances work as catalyst if light exists such as a plant does photosynthesis.
If light reaches photocatalyst materials, electron is excited from the valance band to conduction band, leaving the hole in valance band
The holes produce hydroxy radicals(+OH) to oxidation of H2O, electrons are transferred to oxygen to produce superoxide anions(O2-).
These oxidants(or reductants) decompose organic materials into CO2 and H2O.
Photocatalyst materials can be used semi-permanently, because do not change themselves when a light exist.
Photocatalyst are used TiO2 anatase type.

Photocatalyst's Effects

Decompose organic materials, NOx, SOx, Cl2, NH3 etc.
Sterilize bacterial and prevent 2nd contamination
Decompose offensive odors occurred closed in-door by chemical reaction

Overseas Countries Ozone Standards

Data of applying ozone for water treatment

 

Treated Water

Concentration of ozone
(mg/L)

Infusing time
(min)

Effectiveness
(%)

 

Aquarium; ponds

0.10~0.05

Constant

>90

 

Bath water

0.1~0.5

Constant

>90

 

Pool water

0.5~1.0

5

>90

 

Removing odors

0.5~1.0

1

>80

 

Sterilizing clean water

0.5~1.0

5

>99.9

 

Sterilizing goods in clean water

1.0~2.0

5

>90

 

Sterilizing dirty water

2.0~3.0

5

>90

 

Rinse

2.0~3.0

5

>80

 

Removing organics

1.0~3.0

5

>30

 

Application of ozone gas

Field

Object

Purpose

Concentration ozone( PPM )

House

Living room, Kitchen, Locker, Toilet, Basement, Pet

Prevent insects (cockroach, tick, housefly, mosquito),
prevent infectious diseases of pets; Remove odors; kill bacteria

0.01-0.03

Building

Garbage room, toilet

Remove odors

0.02-0.5

Hospital

Consulting room, Waiting room, Operation room, Passageway

Prevent secondary infections; remove odors

0.01-1.0

Livestock industry

Pig raising, chicken raising yards

Prevent infectious diseases; remove odors

0.01-0.03

Food industry

Cooking area, packaging area, dressing room, raw garbage warehouse, toilet, vegetable cleaning

Cleaning of (kill bacteria; remove odors) work area, cooking machines and operators

0.01-1.0

Logistics industry

Commercial freezing; storehouse; cooling warehouse;  truck; cargo ship

Prolong the freshness of fruits, vegetables, meats; Remove odors

0.01-0.5


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